I had successfully run ssd_mobilenet_v2_coco object detection using an Intel NCS2 running on an Ubuntu PC in the past but had not tried this using a Raspberry Pi running Raspbian as it was not supported at that time (if I remember correctly). Now, OpenVINO does run on Raspbian so I thought it would be fun to get this working on the Pi. The main task consisted of getting the CSSD rt-ai Stream Processing Element (SPE) compiling and running using Raspbian and its version of OpenVINO rather then the usual x86 64 Ubuntu system.
Compiled rt-ai SPEs use Qt so it was a case of putting together a different .pro qmake file to reflect the particular requirements of the Raspbian environment. Once I had sorted out the slight link command changes, the SPE crashed as soon as it tried to read in the model .xml file. I got stuck here for quite a long time until I realized that I was missing a compiler argument that meant that my binary was incompatible with the OpenVINO inference engine. This was fixed by adding the following line to the Raspbian .pro file:
QMAKE_CXXFLAGS += -march=armv7-a
Once that was added, the code worked perfectly. To test, I set up a simple rt-ai design:
For this test, the CSSDPi SPE was the only thing running on the Pi itself (rtai1), the other two SPEs were running on a PC (default). The incoming captured frames from the webcam to the CSSDPi SPE were 1280 x 720 at 30fps. The CSSDPi SPE was able to process 17 frames per second, not at all bad for a Raspberry Pi 3 model B! Incidentally, I had tried a similar setup using the Coral Edge TPU device and its version of the SSD SPE, CoralSSD, but the performance was nowhere near as good. One obvious difference is that CoralSSD is a Python SPE because, at that time, the C++ API was not documented. One day I may change this to a C++ SPE and then the comparison will be more representative.
Of course you can use multiple NCS 2s to get better performance if required although I haven’t tried this on the Pi as yet. Still, the same can be done with Coral with suitable code. In any case, rt-ai has the Scaler SPE that allows any number of edge inference devices on any number of hosts to be used together to accelerate processing of a single flow. I have to say, the ability to use rt-ai and rtaiDesigner to quickly deploy distributed stream processing networks to heterogeneous hosts is a lot of fun!
The motivation for all of this is to move from x86 processors with big GPUs to Raspberry Pis with edge inference accelerators to save power. The driveway project has been running for months now, heating up the basement very nicely. Moving from YOLOv3 on a GTX 1080 to MobileNet SSD and a Coral edge TPU saved about 60W, moving the entire thing from that system to the Raspberry Pi has probably saved a total of 80W or so.
This is the design now running full time on the Pi:
CPU utilization for the CSSDPi SPE is around 21% and it uses around 23% of the RAM. The raw output of the CSSDPi SPE is fed through a filter SPE that only outputs a message when a detection has passed certain criteria to avoid false alarms. Then, I get an email with a frame showing what triggered the system. The View module is really just for debugging – this is the kind of thing it displays:
The metadata displayed on the right is what the SSDFilter SPE uses to determine whether the detection should be reported or not. It requires a configurable number of sequential frames with a similar detection (e.g. car rather than something else) over a configurable confidence level before emitting a message. Then, it has a hold-off in case the detected object remains in the frame for a long time and, even then, requires a defined gap before that detection is re-armed. It seems to work pretty well.
One advantage of using CSSD rather than CYOLO as before is that, while I don’t get specific messages for things like a USPS van, it can detect a wider range of objects:
Currently the filter only accepts all the COCO vehicle classes and the person class while rejecting others, all in the interest of reducing false detection messages.
I had expected to need a Raspberry Pi 4 (mine is on its way 🙂 ) to get decent performance but clearly the Pi 3 is well able to cope with the help fo the NCS 2.